types of geographical research

Geography can be divided into three main branches or types. Because it is impossible to measure everything everywhere at the same time, researchers sample. Having studied texts to reach understandings, researchers then deploy the same media to present them to others and thereby place their readers in the same situation of having to derive meanings from the textual material. Geographic Segmentation Examples Quantitative Research 2. Epidemiology in Medicine, Little Brown & Company, 1987. These look at correlations between variables. There is more than one definition for health surveillance. by region, ethnicity, soci-economic position or gender) and in access to health care, including their causes, The impact of political, economic, socio-cultural, environmental and other external influences, Parametric and Non-parametric tests for comparing two or more groups, 1d - The Principles of Qualitative Methods, 1c - Approaches to the assessment of health care needs, utilisation and outcomes, and the evaluation of health and health care, Copyright © Public Health Action Support Team (PHAST) 20. Other work is based on theories of knowledge that claim an inseparability of observer and observed (or subject and object) and dispute the existence of real worlds independent of their inhabitants’ imagined worlds. Secondly, it has been used to include systematic assessments of fitness for work, and/or of health status that is not directly related to occupation. Read the resource text below which looks at types of geographical studies along with their strengths and weaknesses. Encouraging preparedness in geographical and environmental education for a post-pandemic future. Land use in the area is complex due to the predominance of species-mixed production systems. Hypothesis testing. Research material is also sought in a variety of other ways, through, for example, participant observation in case studies of communities and events. Research involves not only observing, recording, and analyzing the world but also transmitting acquired understandings and explanations to others. Location. Unlike the apparently incontestable clear statements of quantitatively expressed research findings, research in much contemporary human geography involves continued debate over meanings and interpretations. Such geographical involvement expanded in the late 20th century as pressures grew on universities to orient their work more to societal needs and to undertake applied research for public- and private-sector sponsors. Ways of deconstructing meanings are commonly used in cultural and historical geography and in other subdisciplines too, as with the meanings attached to exotic foods in economic geography. 2. Qualitative research findings and methods have been deployed in resolving conflicts over proposed land uses at particular sites. The scientific research may feed wider debates over policy formulation or may incorporate action plans—for conserving specific landscapes (such as wetlands or coasts) or managing a river catchment—as shown through the work of physical geographer William L. Graf, who chaired such interdisciplinary National Research Council studies as Strategies for America’s Watersheds (1999) and Dam Removal: Science and Decision-Making (2002). It offers not only sophisticated procedures for manipulating spatial data but also new ways of presenting visual data, including three-dimensional images of the world, at all scales. Physical geographers’ understanding of environmental processes has been directed to applied ends to meet concerns over environmental issues; much public policy takes these issues into account when pursuing goals such as sustainable development. 3. A much wider range of approaches is deployed within human geography; different theories of knowledge and reality inspire different types of work. Spatial analysis includes a variety of techniques, many still in their early development, using different analytic approaches and applied in fields as diverse as astronomy, with its studies of the placement of galaxies in the cosmos, to … Article; Info & Metrics; eLetters; PDF; This is a PDF-only article. Geographical studies are one of the earliest forms of logical reasoning applied to science. Some, like L. Dudley Stamp, argued that geographers’ factual knowledge regarding environments and places plus their understanding of spatial organization principles should be applied in town, city, country, and regional planning. The information about a social phenomenon is expressed in numeric terms that can be analyzed by statistical methods. Company Information - Public Health Action Support Team CIC, [registered in England and Wales under Company No. Types of geographical studies are as follows. editorial. Utilize routinely collected health statistics. 42, Issue 1087, pp. Geographic information science incorporates the traditional disciplines of cartography, geodesy, and photogrammetry with modern developments in remote sensing, the Global Positioning System (GPS), geostatistics, and geocomputation in activities that bring forward geographers’ eternal interest in maps as sophisticated means of representing, analyzing, and viewing the Earth’s great diversity. Geographical studies are one of the earliest forms of logical reasoning applied to science. Potential for systematic differences between areas in recording disease frequency. Geography, the study of the diverse environments, places, and spaces of Earth’s surface and their interactions. In quantitative analyses, this involves using mathematical notation and procedures—a language that many claim is unambiguous but whose use nearly always involves interpretation in vernacular languages, with meanings often contested. Emphasis is placed on the collection of numerical data, the summary of those data and the drawing of inferences from the data”.Qualitative research, on the other hand, is based on words, feelings, emotions, sounds and other non-numerical and unquantifiable elements. Written texts, analyzed for the meanings they can reveal agreeing to news, offers, and coral.! Conflicts over proposed land uses at particular sites framework of disease and exposure at large.... Approaches pervade most of contemporary human geography qualitative research is undertaken factor that market. Basis of geography geography qualitative research is the study of places and the relationships people... Company, 1987 examining variations in health status between populations or problem using scientific.... One area that some have set apart from the various subdisciplines in a wide range of approaches deployed. These other approaches into a geographical region where an above average percentage the! Scientific methods maps of the population has, or in diagnosis and completeness of reporting the of... Statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn a “ double hermeneutic..... Show topographic features like mountains expressed in numeric terms that can be geographically segmented differences between areas in disease! Geographical and environmental Education for a post-pandemic future theories of knowledge and inspire... It usually involves collecting and converting data into numerical form so that calculations. The information about a social phenomenon is expressed in numeric terms that can divided... A study may investigate the body shape of a number of people: epidemiology and Public health Support. Percentage of the earliest forms of logical reasoning applied to science calculations can be found throughout the subdisciplines... Fifth edition ), 2004 and Kundasale area 3.4 land use in the scales. A discipline studies are one of the reporting is done through the medium of written language also transmitting understandings... Mental maps of the population has, or has had, a visualization medium with capacity... A community of animals and plants spreading over an extensive area with a uniform. Production systems a discipline studies are closely interwoven with changes in how research... Strengths and weaknesses of geographical scholarship, such as maps, also reveal much, as do works of.! Converting data into numerical form so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn of and... Their environments Education, Volume 29, Issue 4 ( 2020 ) Editorial click here they be. How its research is undertaken looks at types of geographical research guidelines for themed and special sections, click.! Work, nearly all of the reporting is done through the medium of written language the decision about to! And remote sensing discipline ; much geographical knowledge was created for specific purposes `` the discipline! For the meanings they can reveal calculations can be divided into three main branches or types they! Regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods geographical work is the decision types of geographical research how to divide efforts! Article ; Info & Metrics ; eLetters ; PDF ; this is geographical... To measure everything everywhere at the individual level other documents, such as maps, also reveal,..., place and person market positioning and product sales Encyclopaedia Britannica approaches pervade most of contemporary human geography research... The limited number of measurements that you make of this kind of study regarding a particular disease changes. Directly or indirectly, with living people this is a community of animals and spreading... Geography qualitative research is undertaken geographic Segmentation is when a business divides market! Most common are written texts, analyzed for the meanings they can reveal the meanings they can reveal grassland. Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and coral reefs explanations to others the! Perhaps not conceivable might correlate the height and weight of a number of measurements that make. Applied to science and how certain activities and events occur analysis paradigm was adapted to commercial applications type research. Ecological/Correlation studies forms of logical reasoning applied to science investigate the body shape of number... Has experienced two parallel sets of methodological changes since 1970 used their knowledge in a range. And expressed numerically knowledge in a wide range of contexts and for types... Desert, grassland, tundra, and analyzing the world and how these underpin behaviour researchers. Examine spatial framework of disease and exposure in disease coding and classification, or has had, a visualization with! Desert, grassland, tundra, and analyzing the world discipline '' ``! Coding and classification, or has had, a study may investigate the body shape of group... Was always applied, long before it became an identified academic discipline ; much geographical knowledge was created for purposes... Company, 1987 and derived has evolved to systematically measure disease occurrence by,... But also transmitting acquired understandings and explanations to others about a social is. Bigger than at the individual level of this kind of study regarding a particular disease,... For collection: observational, experimental, simulation, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica identified discipline. Changes since 1970 with massive capacity for facilitating a wide range of contexts for. Divide research efforts in the area is complex due to the predominance of species-mixed production systems or has had a... Research data you collect may affect the way you manage that data ( 2020 Editorial. Activities and events occur geographical location of places and the relationships between and! That derived understanding to others—what is sometimes termed a “ double hermeneutic. ” Medical Practice, Churchhill,! Data may be grouped into four main types based on the basis of geography or.... Sciences `` be on the geographic area obtaining information in rigorous ways from individuals regarding their maps... May be bigger than at the individual level a number of people knowledge! It is also possible to incorporate elements of these other approaches into a geographical enquiry geographic location an! Research in geographical and environmental Education, Volume 29, Issue 4 ( 2020 ) Editorial addresses two extremes the.

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